Download e-book for iPad: Applied Surfactants: Principles and Applications by Tharwat F. Tadros
By Tharwat F. Tadros
Whereas at the moment to be had titles both specialise in the fundamentals or on very particular subtopics, this article meets the necessity for a accomplished survey of surfactants and their houses, with a robust emphasis on functions and their correlation to the basics.
the writer covers their class, actual homes, section habit, adsorption, results - corresponding to wetting, spreading and adhesion - in addition to commercial purposes in own care and cosmetics, prescription drugs, agrochemicals and foodstuff items.
Professor Tadros is a well known specialist related to surfactants, with a lot event in colloid technology. the following, he makes use of his commercial event to shut the distance among basics of surfactants and their relevance and purposes in perform.
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Extra info for Applied Surfactants: Principles and Applications
5 Surfactant–Polymer Interaction Fig. 12. Association between surfactant and homopolymer in diﬀerent concentration domains . tion, independent of polymer molecular weight down to low values. For very low molecular weight the interaction is weakened. (3) The plateau binding increases linearly with polymer concentration. g. PEO and PVP) while cationic surfactants show a weaker but still signiﬁcant interaction. Nonionic and zwitterionic surfactants only rarely show a distinct interaction with homopolymers.
NSÀ þ nMþ Ð Sn ð2:8Þ The micelle is simply a charged aggregate of surfactant ions plus an equivalent number of counter ions in the surrounding atmosphere and is treated as a separate phase. The chemical potential of the surfactant in the micellar state is assumed to be constant, at any given temperature, and this may be adopted as the standard chemical potential, mm , by analogy to a pure liquid or a pure solid. Considering the equilibrium between micelles and monomer, then, mm ¼ m1 þ RT ln a ð2:9Þ 27 28 2 Physical Chemistry of Surfactant Solutions where m1 is the standard chemical potential of the surfactant monomer and a1 is its activity, which is equal to f1 x1 , where f1 is the activity coeﬃcient and x1 the mole fraction.
As with micelles the main driving force is the reduction of hydrocarbon/water contact area of the alkyl chain of the dissolved surfactant. A delicate balance between several forces is responsible for the surfactant/ polymer association. For example, aggregation is resisted by the crowding of the ionic head groups at the surface of the micelle.
Applied Surfactants: Principles and Applications by Tharwat F. Tadros